https://youtu.be/s2yetqpD4mk?t=10m17sThe core distinctions he makes–between Peace Making, Peace Keeping, and Peace Building are essential to the strategies I’m using in my work with Children of Confidence and a few other community oriented initiatives. Hopefully they’re helpful for you too.
1. Peace Making (intervene with violence/stopping violence)
Legitimizing-validating the identity/existence & claims of a group
2. Peace Keeping (How to maintain stability)
1) Old form
neutral moderator (neutral peacekeeping forces)
Keep parties apart
Requires larger force
W African (Sudan/Darfur)
challenge: requires question of sovereignty3. Peace Building (advancing peace)
Stopping violence on longterm basis
Stopping Institutional/structural violenceDisarmament (e.g. the IRA) -ideally mutual
Reconciliation & reintegration (of refugees)1) Tolerance & ignore each other
2) Resuming relations & trying to build toward the future
3) Econ dev & sustainability
e.g. blaming in the state of Michigan–immigrants get blamed, etc.
in Europe, Greece, France, etc. similar
4) Security gaurantees: how to guarantee people will feel safe at night?
5) Good governance & reliable rule of law.
e.g. Government is nonexistent in Somalia.
Hard Power, Soft Power (no shout out to Joseph Nye!)
U.S.: leading figure in Hard Power
U.S. -> Kuwait campaign exemplary demonstration of hard power.
U.S. spends most to invest in Hard Power
Vietnam is model example–“how do you win the hearts and the minds of the people”
U.S. introduced several generals to oversee governance of regions. Lacked local ownership.
“How do you win a peasant war on the side of the landlords?” The U.S. siding with perspectives similar to the French.
Gen. McChrystal: has forces on call to bring benefits to local people in addition to medical care & protection from Taliban.
Question: should Military be the one to provide if it’s not particularly designed for/adept at this kind of aid work?
Nationbuilding happened in Vietnam–e.g. village reconstruction (Sam Desanto did this kind of work when serving in Vietnam)
Public opinion poll conducted when entering the country of Iraq:
#1 choice: we don’t need a model, we can do our own
Why: why should a 6000 year old civilization/birthplace of civilization follow what a 300 year old nation tells it?
#2 choice: United Arab Emerites
1) suggests a more indigenous
Keys to conflict: listening, sometimes to people who you don’t like, or you feel threatened by
How wars have changed:
1) U.S. Civil War = serial battles with tangible and successes/failures measured almost solely by body count* [notetaker’s distinction: military victory differs from the diplomatic outcome; read: https://weeklysift.com/2014/08/11/not-a-tea-party-a-confederate-party/ %5D
2) Modern wars [Complex system conflicts]
The aim of the war effort is to mobilize people.
Baltimore, MD Performers line up for a group photo from a global heritage festival in 2015.